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However, both sentences express the same idea using the same words. Other students might have problems due to the prescribing and proscribing nature of rules in the language formulated by amateur grammarians rather than ascribing to the functional and descriptive nature of languages evidenced from distribution.
For example, a cleric, Robert Lowth , introduced the rule to never end a sentence with a preposition, inspired from Latin grammar, through his book A Short Introduction to English Grammar.
Like many alphabetic writing systems, English also has incorporated the principle that graphemic units should correspond to the phonemic units; however, the fidelity to the principle is compromised, compared to an exemplar language like the Finnish language.
For example, a study among Chinese ESL students revealed that preference for not using the tense marking on verb present in the morphology of their mother tongue made it difficult for them to express time-related sentences in English.
English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. These sounds can include vowels and consonants, as well as diphthongs and other morphemes.
Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and pronouncing them. For example:. Languages may also differ in syllable structure ; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it e.
Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese , for example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels between the consonants e.
Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s] , and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e.
Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners.
Usually, these learners have had their first-language education interrupted. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills,   and these learners may avoid reading or writing.
Learners who have not had extensive exposure to reading and writing in a second language, despite having acceptable spoken proficiency, may have difficulties with the reading and writing in their L2.
Joann Crandall  has pointed out that most teacher training programs for TESOL instructors do not include sufficient, in most cases "no", training for the instruction in literacy.
This is a gap that many scholars feel needs to be addressed. Basic interpersonal communication skills BICS are language skills needed in social situations.
These language skills usually develop within six months to two years. Cognitive academic language proficiency CALP refers to the language associated with formal content material and academic learning.
These skills usually take from five to seven years to develop. According to some English professionals, reading for pleasure is an important component in the teaching of both native and foreign languages: .
As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. There is also debate about "meaning-focused" learning and "correction-focused" learning.
Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important. However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important.
Language has a very significant role in people's lives. It symbolizes the cultures in societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate with each other.
The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests.
However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships.
In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic, and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly.
Although many non-English speakers tend to practice English classes in their countries before they migrate to any anglophone country to make it easier for them to interact with the people, many of them still struggle when they experience the reality of communicating with a real anglophone.
Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues.
The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect.
However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable, and productive.
Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike.
Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found.
In today's developed world , a computer is one of a number of systems that help learners to improve their language. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible.
Computers can provide help to ESL learners in many different ways such as teaching students to learn a new language.
The computer can be used to test students about the language they already learn. It can assist them in practicing certain tasks.
The computer permits students to communicate easily with other students in different places. For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions, sharpen their writing skills, and build their confidence.
However, some who are introverted may not feel comfortable sharing their ideas on the blog. Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge.
The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with the influence of a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work.
In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools.
Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English.
They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around. However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them.
Teaching English, therefore, involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for their purposes, but also exposure to regional forms and cultural styles so that the student will be able to discern meaning even when the words, grammar, or pronunciation are different from the form of English they are being taught to speak.
Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs.
For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English also known as Ebonics , linguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many "Englishes" that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field.
ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math.
Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college-level academic literacy.
Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities.
ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English.
This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses.
ESL students can also face additional financial barriers to higher education because of their language skills.
Those that don't place high enough on college placement exams often have to enroll in ESL courses at their universities.
In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grant , the maximum grant for the year — covered only about a third of the cost of college.
ESL students often have difficulty interacting with native speakers in school. Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English.
Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culture , which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics.
These interactions have been found to extend to teacher-student interactions as well. In most mainstream classrooms, a teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson.
In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms.
ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons.
Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier , the cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.
Supporters of ESL programs claim they play an important role in the formation of peer networks and adjustment to school and society in their new homes.
Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers.
ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture , the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings.
ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.
Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level.
The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case, the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student.
Monolingual tutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee.
Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other.
In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure.
In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.
Since there is not enough funding to afford tutors, and teachers find it hard to educate all students who have different learning abilities, it is highly important to implement peer-tutoring programs in schools.
Students placed in ESL program learn together along with other non-English speakers; however, by using peer tutoring in a classroom it will avoid the separation between regular English classes and ESL classes.
These programs will promote community between students that will be helping each other grow academically. It was found that students with learning disabilities and low performing students who are exposed to the explicit teaching and peer tutoring treatment in the classroom, have better academic performance than those students who do not receive this type of assistance.
It was proven that peer tutoring is the most effective and no cost form of teaching . It has been proven that peer-mediated tutoring is an effective tool to help ESL students succeed academically.
Peer tutoring has been utilized across many different academic courses and the outcomes for those students that have different learning abilities are outstanding.
Classmates who were actively involved with other peers in tutoring had better academic standing than those students who were not part of the tutoring program.
It was also found that the literature on the efficacy of peer tutoring service combined with regular classroom teaching, is the best methodology practice that is effective, that benefits students, teachers, and parents involved.
Three different approaches were the focus in which immersing students in English from the very beginning and teaching them reading only in that language; teaching students in Spanish first, followed by English; and teaching students to read in Spanish and English simultaneously.
This occurs through a strategic approach such as structured English immersion or sheltered instruction. Findings showed that the paired bilingual reading approach appeared to work as well as, or better than, the English-only reading approach in terms of reading growth and results.
Researchers found differences in results, but they also varied based on several outcomes depending on the student's learning abilities and academic performance.
Teachers in an ESL class are specifically trained in particular techniques and tools to help students learn English.
Research says that the quality of their teaching methods is what matters the most when it comes to educating English learners.
It was also mentioned [ who? There is a high need for comprehensive professional development for teachers in the ESL program. Although peer tutoring has been proven to be an effective way of learning that engages and promotes academic achievement in students, does it have an effect on the achievement gap?
It is an obvious fact that there is a large academic performance disparity between White, Black, and Latino students, and it continues to be an issue that has to be targeted.
However it was mentioned that by developing effective peer tutoring programs in schools could be a factor that can potentially decrease the achievement gap in the United States.
Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: .
Many countries also have their own exams. Between and , the Council of Europe 's language policy division developed it's Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries.
Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing A1, A2, B1, etc.
Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers [ citation needed ].
They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such, they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialization in teaching English.
Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers see below.
Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry becomes more professional, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these.
A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world.
It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period of up to a year. Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects including school management and teacher training can take a diploma course.
These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework.
Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT.
Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course.
The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision.
Often this requires completing an eight-month graduate certificate program at an accredited university or college. Some U. In many areas of the United States , a growing number of K public school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English.
The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction.
This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. This may be called an "endorsement". Endorsement programs may be part of a graduate program or maybe completed independently to add the endorsement to the initial teaching certificate.
It is important to determine if a graduate program is designed to prepare teachers for adult education or K education.
A program will also likely have specific classes on skills such as reading, writing, pronunciation, and grammar.
Many graduate students also participate in teaching practica or clinicals, which provide the opportunity to gain experience in classrooms.
In addition to traditional classroom teaching methods, speech pathologists, linguists, actors, and voice professionals are actively involved in teaching pronunciation of American English—called accent improvement, accent modification, and accent reduction—and serve as resources for other aspects of spoken English, such as word choice.
It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license for K teachers is not automatic following completion of degree requirements.
All teachers must complete a battery of exams typically the Praxis test or a specific state test subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams as well as supervised instruction as student teachers.
Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework. ESL certifications are usually only valid when paired with an already existing teaching certificate.
Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state; out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized if the two states have a reciprocity agreement.
The following document states the qualifications for an ESL certificate in the state of Pennsylvania. Native speakers will often be able to find work as an English teacher in Chile without an ESL teaching certificate.
The Chilean Ministry of Education also sponsors the English Opens Doors program, which recruits native English speakers to come work as teaching assistants in Chilean public schools.
English Opens Doors requires only a bachelor's degree in order to be considered for acceptance. Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK.
See further discussion is Terminology, and types above. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from ESL.
For the podcast, see English as a Second Language Podcast. For other uses, see ESL disambiguation. Use of English by speakers with different native languages.
Main articles: Non-native pronunciations of English and Accent reduction. For further discussion of English spelling patterns and rules, see Phonics.
See also: Category:English language tests. See also: Language education. Education portal Language portal. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing.
Retrieved November 18, Antony 8 August Notion Press. Phonography printing Company. Archived from the original on Retrieved Body parts can also be described by the adjectives long or short.
Language Objectives: To be able to talk about family members and what they do. These questions are close-ended.
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Lessons include greetings, colors, how to count from one to ten, animals on the farm, fruit, body parts, family members and more.
Greetings Start Lesson. Start Lesson. Dialogue Video Topic: First Day at School Communication Objectives: Kids will learn how to introduce their friends to other people and will review simple greetings.
Freddie's Birthday Start Lesson. Dialogue Video Topic: How is Lisa? Colors Lesson Start Lesson. Dialogue Video Topic: Colors description dialogue Communication Objectives: Children will use colors to describe things, using the correct words and expressions.
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